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Bizarre radio bursts solve the universe’s ‘missing matter’ problem

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Mysterious signals from deep space have been used to solve one of the most enduring mysteries of the universe.


ICRAR

When Jean-Pierre Macquart arrived home from work one night in 2019, he was buzzing with excitement. He’d just helped solve a decades-old cosmic mystery with the help of a team of international astronomers. He couldn’t wait to tell his wife. 

Macquart had successfully weighed the universe for the first time, finally discovering where half of all the normal matter was hiding. But as he stepped through the door, ready to explain his monumental find, the ethereal secrets of the cosmos he’d uncovered were quick replaced by the practicalities of existence.

Within minutes, he was wrangling two children, ages two and four, and taking to the kitchen, helping his wife with the cooking. In reflecting on the evening he says he likely helped with the meal, but it wasn’t all that memorable. His head was “still up in the sky.” The discovery he’d made earlier in the day, which he says “put to bed” the mystery of the universe’s missing matter problem, was still playing on his mind.

In a new study, published in the journal Nature on Wednesday, Macquart and a team of international astronomers detail their discovery for the first time. They reveal how a stream of bizarre signals sent from deep space helped solve a lingering mystery about the normal matter in the universe — and how their technique has provided a whole new way to look at the cosmos.

The ‘missing matter’ problem

Macquart, an astronomer at the International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research in Australia, and his team have been searching the cosmos for fast radio bursts, or FRBs, using a huge telescope array in the Australian outback known as the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder. The extremely energetic bursts travel through the vast emptiness of space and are detected by ASKAP’s 36 dish antennas stationed in the radio-quiet desert of Western Australia. 

Macquart and a quantum of collaborators from institutions across the globe, part of the the Commensal Real-time ASKAP Fast Transients Survey investigative team, realized the bursts could also be used to detect the “missing matter” of the universe.

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The Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder has helped solve one of the enduring mysteries of the cosmos.


ASKAP

The universe is made up of “ordinary matter,” dark matter and dark energy. The latter constituents make up around 95% of the known universe and are incredibly mysterious. We know they exist but we’ve never been able to detect them.

On the other hand, you have ordinary matter. Macquart explains that ordinary matter, or baryonic matter, is all the “stuff” you and I are made of, as well as what makes up the planets, stars and galaxies. “It’s anything you can think of on the periodic table,” he says. Early calculations in the 1990s showed this type of matter makes up the other measly 5% of all matter in the universe, and scientists went searching for it. 

“When they looked … a few decades ago, they could only account for about half of that,” says Macquart. Counting up all the matter they could see — the galaxies, stars, planets, gases — scientists fell woefully short of their 5% target. The matter was missing from their measurements. 

But astronomers had an inkling as to where they might find it. Over the years, a number of different methods have been used to try to detect the missing matter, but researchers weren’t able to adequately detect all the normal matter across the universe, mostly because they focused in on specific regions of space. Macquart likens this to trying to tell how big a dog is just “by looking at the size of its tail.” 

But the new technique pioneered by the team — using FRBs — lets you look at the whole dog.   

“What FRBs do is go way out into the stretches [of space] where [other] techniques simply fall over,” he says. 

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A visualization of how an FRB signal travels through empty space and what happens to the signal when it runs into missing matter.


ICRAR

Blast from the past

Fast radio bursts are mysterious and intriguing cosmic phenomena. They were first identified in 2007, but their origins continue to elude scientists. They are still quite rare, but we are getting better at finding them. New telescopes and radio arrays, like ASKAP, allow astronomers to pinpoint the source of these radio wave bursts from deep space.

ASKAP is a key piece of the new study because it is basically always watching a large patch of the sky, like a cosmic Big Brother. Every second it takes 10 trillion measurements and then averages out to around 1 billion measurements per second, looking for signs of FRBs. 

To ping an ASKAP antenna on Earth, the radio waves travel from distant galaxies, enduring a long journey that takes them through the vast nothingness of space between galaxies. While we might traditionally see this region of space as empty, it’s actually full of particles like electrons that can bump into the wave as it zips through the universe from as far as 3 billion light-years away.

“As the radio waves travel across the cosmos, they interact with the free electrons, smearing the radio signal,” says Geraint Lewis, an astrophysicist at the University of Sydney who was not affiliated with the study. It’s this smearing of the radio signal that was key to finding the missing matter. 

The astronomers counted “the number of electrons lying along our line of sight” back to the FRB sources, according to Lewis, providing a measure of the hidden matter in the cosmos. After studying five different FRBs, from five different locations, the team found their measurements lined up almost perfectly with predictions of how much normal matter should exist in the universe. 

The puzzle was finally solved, and cosmologists could breathe a little easier — their models for understanding the universe weren’t incorrect.

“It puts to rest what could have been a real cosmic embarrassment,” says Xavier Prochaska, an astronomer at the University of California, Santa Cruz and co-author on the new paper, during a media briefing. “We all expected to detect it, eventually, but until we did, it was an embarrassment.”

Mapping the cosmic web

With the mystery of the missing matter solved, the team believe they can use FRBs as a new tool to probe the cosmos. 

The FRB detection method is super sensitive compared to previous methods and allows researchers to detect the ordinary matter locked in the vast gas-filled space between galaxies. This means astronomers might be able to map out the so-called cosmic web, the filaments that link the universe together.

“The technique … is going to be a technique that allows us to map out where the gas is,” says Prochaska. 

“As of today, we can mainly show you this image from a computer simulation of the cosmic web, but give us five years and at least 100 more of these FRBs and we should be able to show you a more high-fidelity map of the real universe.”

The team will continue looking for FRBs with ASKAP, and Macquart notes they are building a “ginormous machine” that will be able to find more of the bursts, increasing the rate of detection 20-fold. Such a leap could enable the team to pick up 100 of the signals within a year and help reshape how we view the universe, back to its earliest days.

“We might even be able to say something about the Epoch of Reionization, when the universe was turned from neutral matter to ionized matter,” he says.  

Of course, the missing matter only makes up a very small percentage of all the matter in the universe, and there are big cosmological questions that still need answering, 

“Whilst we know where all of the normal material is spread throughout the universe, we have still only tied down less than 5% of the cosmos,” says Lewis. “Dark matter and dark energy remain the next nut to crack.”

On the other hand, there’s another pressing puzzle for Macquart to turn his attention to now that his discovery is out in the world. Unlike the missing matter problem, it’s one that many of us down on Earth can easily understand. One that speaks to the practicalities of existence a little more.

What on Earth should I cook for dinner?

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Aliexpress Standard Shipping vs ePacket – For Which One You Should Go For

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Aliexpress Standard Shipping vs ePacket - For Which One You Should Go For

Aliexpress Standard Shipping vs ePacket

Want to know the difference between these two shipping modes? With which shipping method you should go?

Out of Aliexpress Standard Shipping and ePacket, which is cheaper? Then no worries. We are here with a closer look at –Aliexpress Standard Shipping vs ePacket. We will help you out to figure these two available shipping ways.

Aliexpress Standard Shipping

Aliexpress Standard Shipping and the company is the top e-commerce site and property of Alibaba Group. Aliexpress Standard Shipping is not the cheapest delivery option but it is a reliable choice.

AliExpress offers shipping options for every taste and budget:

  • For those who are in a hurry.
  • For those who are not.
  • With extra fees.

With Aliexpress Standard Shipping, the parcels usually arrive within 15-45 days.

You will see the tracking number of the parcel on the product’s details page when the shipment is sent. You can track the location of your package also.

Aliexpress Standard Shipping follows different chain:

Seller-> Aliexpress Warehouse->Courier->Customer.

ePacket

As the name implies, the shipping service was designed for e-commerce. It helps the customers to receive parcels quickly from online stores and marketplaces that shipped out from China and Hong Kong.

Before ePacket, products were shipped to the US from China via sea. This was a long journey, and shipping took a long time.

However, ePacket has its own requirements. The maximum length of a package is 24 inches (60 cm) and the total length, height, and thickness of the package cannot be more than 36 inches (90 cm).

Additionally, the package cannot weigh more than 4.4 lbs (2kg). Through ePacket, the product can be delivered to 35 countries.

Shipping time may vary and depends on the destination of the package, customs, holidays, and other delays. On average a package takes 10-20 days to arrive from the United States.

Aliexpress Standard Shipping vs ePacket

The two shipping methods that we are going to explore are AliExpress Standard Shipping and ePacket. Compared to the other free shipping method, AliExpress Standard Shipping and ePacket can cut down shipping time for a few days.

To know which is the best shipping option, consider the advantages and disadvantages of each shipping method.

Aliexpress Standard Shipping- Advantages

  • It provides free shipping to some destination countries like the USA.
  • Products are packed in good quality packaging.
  • Packages usually arrived within 15 to 45 days.
  • Provides many shipping options according to your choice.

Disadvantages

  • Packages usually arrived within 15 to 45 days.
  • It is ideal for small packages.
  • Sometimes you need to pick up your parcels.

ePacket Shipping: Advantages

  • The estimated shipping time is 7 – 30 days.
  • It is cheaper than other shipping services.
  • ePacket is faster than other standard shipping methods being used in China.

Disadvantages

  • ePacket is not available worldwide. ePacket delivers the products only in 35 countries.
  • There is a limitation on the size and weight of parcels.

Which Shipping Method Should I Go With- Aliexpress Standard Shipping vs ePacket?

According to my choice, you should choose ePacket as it is faster and more reliable.

From our experience, AliExpress Standard Shipping generally has a slower delivery timeframe than ePacket. But if it isn’t, then AliExpress Standard Shipping should be your next best choice for affordable shipping and package delivery.

Summing it Up On :

Aliexpress Standard Shipping vs ePacket

This is all about Aliexpress Standard Shipping vs ePacket. Hope you are able to figure out which shipping method is best for you.

Give your feedback in the comment section below.

Thanks for reading!

Is AliExpress Banned In India? Can It Be Banned Soon?

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Fauci says U.S. needs to ‘hunker down’ for fall and winter

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As the U.S. makes its way to the flu season, the citizens can’t go easy in their fight against this ongoing pandemic, mentioned Dr. Anthony Fauci on Thursday. Even though the total number of latest daily cases for the COVID-19 disease in the United States has been slowly yet steadily declining in the past two weeks straight, the numbers are still fairly close to 200,000 deaths pertaining to COVID-19 along with 6 million+ cases of confirmed infections.

Fauci also mentioned that we have to be cautious & work through the winter and fall season. This is because things are in no way going to be survivable with a plethora of other diseases lurking in the background.

Fauci is the director for the National Institute of Allergies & Infectious Diseases who spoke regarding the vaccine trials for COVID-19 as well as the chances of surges deemed to happen after Labor Day. He went on to note that when the United States manages to control the disease in a certain region, another one emerges as a hot spot.

This spike in the number inevitably appears whenever the states happen to lift their restrictions related to social distancing. As per Fauci, this transition from a controlled area to a hot spot is actually a depressing sight, given the fact that we already know what is responsible for the same.

One among the leading researchers for AIDS since the year 1980s, Fauci, also happened to warn about how dangerous it could be when people start undermining this virus. He also went on to compare this new pandemic to that of the initial days of the HIV virus that started with some gay men & decades later; there were 70 million+ infected individuals with millions dead of the disease.

He mentioned that the people have been through a pandemic of this intensity before, and underestimating its potential would only bring disastrous consequences. Fauci’s comments related to the requirement for scientists and doctors to approach this disease with complete seriousness came just after the President was heard saying that the pandemic seriousness has been minimized as per Sports Grind Entertainment.

President Donald Trump has been highly criticized for the response made by him with regard to this virus. According to the President, he was playing down the scenario, given the fact that there was no need to create panic.

Although Fauci didn’t actually mention these statements provided by the President, he surely reflected on the lessons learned from this mistake. He also added that we had no idea about the virus from the very first day. However, as we learn more about it, we need to be flexible and change the recommendations, policies, guidelines, as well as other mandates as per the information obtained.

Fauci also mentioned that these vaccine trials have been progressing particularly well. He repeated his caution and added it with optimism stating that a vaccine might be ready as we approach the end of 2020. However, he made no comment related to the vaccine trials being conducted at the University of Oxford that was paused for the week after one participant in the United Kingdom happened to develop an issue in the spinal cord area. When enquired about the possibility of a 2nd wave for the cases in the United States, Fauci mentioned that he isn’t debating about the 2nd surge given the fact that we haven’t yet overcome the first one. While the country is ridden with fear of the speculations of an influenza season that might start in the month of October, it might overwhelm the country’s health care protocol, which is overrun with COVID-19 patients.

Although there is some good news coming in from Australia, things are looking good for the United States. Australia experienced the lightest influenza cases due to the social distancing protocol in place for COVID-19 infection.

However, it isn’t clear whether the United States would experience a similar fate in this regard. To this, Fauci commented that he has no idea of the situation and its future, so he wouldn’t want to predict anything positive or negative related to the pandemic.

 

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IT ministry banned 118 more apps including PUBG: Here’s the full list

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The Indian government once again banned 118 Chinese applications. The name of PUBG is also included in these apps. 118 other mobile applications of China have been banned by the IT Ministry.

The Ministry of Information Technology had received several complaints from various sources, stating that users’ data is being stolen incorrectly through some mobile apps available on Android and iOS platforms. 

Here is the full list of apps banned by the government on September 2:

Other Apps which are banned by the Government are :

21.Tencent Weiyun

22.Pitu

23.WeChat Work

24.Cyber Hunter

25.Cyber Hunter Lite

26. Knives Out-No rules, just fight!

27.Super Mecha Champions

28.LifeAfter

29.Dawn of Isles

30.Ludo World-Ludo Superstar

31.Chess Rush

32.PUBG MOBILE Nordic Map: Livik

33.PUBG MOBILE LITE

34.Rise of Kingdoms: Lost Crusade

35.Art of Conquest: Dark Horizon

36.Dank Tanks

37.Warpath

38.Game of Sultans

39.Gallery Vault – Hide Pictures And Videos

40.Smart AppLock (App Protect)

& 10 Bands Equalizer

 

61.Web Browser – Fast, Privacy & Light Web Explorer

62.Web Browser – Secure Explorer

63.Music Player – Audio Player

64.Video Player – All Format HD Video Player

65.Lamour Love All Over The World

66.Amour- video chat & call all over the world.

67.MV Master – Make Your Status Video & Community

68.MV Master – Best Video Maker & Photo Video Editor

69.APUS Message Center-Intelligent management

70.LivU Meet new people & Video chat with strangers

91.Murderous Pursuits

92.Tencent Watchlist (Tencent Technology

93.Learn Chinese AI-Super Chinese

94.HUYA LIVE – Game Live Stream

95.Little Q Album

96.Fighting Landlords – Free and happy Fighting Landlords

97.Hi Meitu

98.Mobile Legends: Pocket

99.VPN for TikTok

100.VPN for TikTok

101.Penguin E-sports Live assistant

102. Buy Cars-offer everything you need, special offers and low prices

103.iPick

104.Beauty Camera Plus – Sweet Camera & Face Selfie

105.Parallel Space Lite – Dual App

106.”Chief Almighty: First Thunder BC

107.MARVEL Super War NetEase Games

108.AFK Arena

109.Creative Destruction NetEase Games

110.Crusaders of Light NetEase Games

111.Mafia City Yotta Games

112.Onmyoji NetEase Games

113.Ride Out Heroes NetEase Games

114. Yimeng Jianghu-Chu Liuxiang has been fully upgraded

115.Legend: Rising Empire NetEase Games

116.Arena of Valor: 5v5 Arena Games

117.Soul Hunters

118.Rules of Survival

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